"I have come to complete the beauties of good behavior."
Hazreti Mohammed (SAS)
Good behavior, adab, includes the accounting of conscience as well as all the potential of evolution in the individual as well as society.
The basis of adab is "hikma", to know and to love the good and the right; to have care, to be considerate and to value knowledge. The Qur'an says, "To whomever hikma is given, without doubt he has received the best of Allah's gifts." None but those with pure intelligence are able to think properly.
Justice is also at the foundation of adab. The Qur'an says, “No doubt Allah orders you to give the responsibility to the most able and when you rule among them to rule with justice." "Could the one who does not do any good be equal to the one who is on the right path and rules with justice?" "When you talk, take care that you be just and keep Allah's promise (your word).” This care to be just is not only towards others but toward one's self.
Courage is also of the foundation of adab. To die in "Jihad" is the greatest of honors. To give one's property, one's service and even one's life for God's sake is the way of happiness in this world and in the hereafter. The Qur'an even forbids the ones fallen for Allah's sake to be called dead. It is said that the one who has the fear of Allah is not afraid of anyone else; in fact, everyone else is afraid of him. One must be very careful not to confuse this kind of courage with foolish, angry or negative attitudes. On the contrary, the courageous is kind, compassionate, forgiving, patient, even tempered and above all loving and serving the faithful.
Honor, "Iffa", is also of the foundation of adab. In addition to its meaning chastity, it encompasses all sorts of dignity belonging to a mature human being: being generous instead
of selfish and demanding; being careful in one's speech instead of speaking heedlessly; overlooking or hiding the faults of others rather than gossiping, backbiting and criticizing. "A Moslem is he from whose hand and tongue others are safe."
"To know, to find and to be." To learn, to acquire knowledge in order to find the right and the lawful, and as a result to do the right thing, is also of the foundation of adab. The
Qur'an says, "Could the one who knows be the same as the one who does not know?" Forgive the one who asks forgiveness. Enforce the good. Turn your face away from the ignorant." The ignorant has no judgment. The misinformed is bound to do wrong. Only the one who knows can find the truth and do right.
The one with good adab must in his daily life give all attention to being truthful with himself and with others, to measure things right objectively, according to the indications of the Qur’an and the adab of the Prophet (SAS), plot subjectively according to his personal interests and whim. He must do good and serve all around him. The lawful (helal) and the unlawful (haram) will be the result this behavior. The Qur'an says, "Measure and weigh right." Obviously this does not apply only to potatoes.
Respect the being, the rights and the possessions of others, especially orphans, widows, poor ones and the unfortunate. The ones who take advantage of others, especially the unfortunate, are totally without adab. The ones who cause disturbance within the family, the community and the society are the ones who have left the proper behavior of Islam.
Mutual respect between man and wife, to love, care and direct one's children, are obligations of adab. The relations between mother, father and children are set right by these two hadiths:
“Treat the children best."
"To treat one's mother and father well is better than prayer, alms, fasting and Jihad n the way of Allah."
The following hadiths point toward good adab. "The heaviest goods to balance in your favor on the day of last judgment are the fear of Allah and good behavior." "Beautify your religion with two things: service and generosity for Allah's sake and good behavior." "The ones who will be dearest to and who will stand closest to me on the day of last judgment will be those who have good behavior." "The one whose faith is strongest amongst you is the one who has the best adab." "You do not receive the love and favors of man cause of your riches, you capture their hearts with a kind smile and beautiful behavior." "There is no better potion than thinking things over. There is no better profit than good behavior." "The one with lacking devotion reaches honorable places and high levels in the hereafter through the beauty of his behavior." "Bad adab brings one to the lowest level of hell."
Hazreti Junayd-i-Bagdadi says, "Good-naturedness, humbleness generosity and above all beautiful behavior will lead to the highest spiritual levels."
Ibn 'Abbas says, "Every building has a foundation. The foundation Islam good adab."